Bush et al. (2020) described qualitative researchers as primary instruments who investigate real-life events or problems. In addition, reflexivity is defined as the possibility of the occurrence of researcher bias at any time during a study. It is suggested that researchers incorporate methods to address researcher bias and remain neutral, as well as objective throughout the investigation to ensure the quality and credibility of the study. For example, direct observation requires informed consent for all voluntary participants. In addition, the investigator should inform the participants of their right to opt out of the study at any time.
In contrast, Connelly (2017) described unobtrusive measures as indirect observations that take place in real-life situations without the permission of the individuals who are under surveillance (possibly violating individual rights to privacy). Further, unobtrusive measures permit investigators to gather data while individuals are unaware and nonreactive. The use of unobtrusive measures combined with technology is becoming more prevalent in various aspects of everyday life in the form of biometrics.
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, law enforcement, the National Institute of Standards and Technology discuss how biometrics has evolved. Biometrics is also used in e-commerce and airports. However, there are risks involved with using biometrics.
Bloomberg. (2014, October 31). Killing the need for passwords with biometrics. https://youtu.be/88Rjg8gM_DI
Bush, A. A., Amechi, M., & Persky, A. (2020). Qualitative research in pharmacy education: An exploration of pharmacy education researchers’ perceptions and experiences conducting qualitative research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(3), 334–344.
Connelly, L. M. (2017). Understanding research. Unobtrusive Measures. MEDSURG Nursing, 26(1), 59–61. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&AuthType=ip,sso&db=a9h&AN=121353517&site=ehost-live&custid=s8876422
Financial Times. (2016, November 4). Banking biometrics: Hacking risk: Personal finance. https://youtu.be/MgWNmWRBaVk
Homeland Security. (2019). Biometrics. United States Department of Homeland Security. https://www.dhs.gov/biometrics
National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2010, March 2). Key to security: Biometric Standards. https://youtu.be/I2LCofq-Bts
Wall Street Journal. (2019, August 15). How facial recognition will get you to your gate faster.
Washington Post. (2019, April 30). Police are using Amazon’s facial recognition technology: Privacy experts are worried. https://youtu.be/tUFmXfKeSGM